Protractor is an end-to-end (E2E) automated testing framework for AngularJS applications, built on top of WebDriverJS, the official WebDriver/Selenium 2.0 bindings for Node.js. It was developed by Julie Ralph, Senior Software Engineer in Test at Google. Its first version was released on July, 2013. Protractor simulates user interaction like navigating to pages, filling in input boxes, clicking buttons, submitting forms, etc.

Protractor supports various behavior-driven development (BDD) testing frameworks like Jasmine (default), Mocha and Cucumber.

The default browser for Protractor is Chrome.


  • Protractor can also be used for testing non-Angular sites.
  • Nightwatch.js is another Node.js based browser automated E2E testing framework for websites and browser-based apps (though not specifically made for AngularJS).
  • The other automated cross-browser testing tool based on Node.js is DalekJS. It has PhantomJS as its default browser.